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JP

John Pastor

Professor of biology, University of Minnesota

John Pastor is professor of biology at the University of Minnesota, Duluth. His book What Should a Clever Moose Eat? Natural History, Ecology, and the North Woods, will be published in February 2016 by Island Press.

Written by John Pastor



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JP

When a season comes early, it has a deadly butterfly effect

John Pastor

This year during late November in northern Minnesota, we have no real snow on the ground, we have had only a few nights of barely respectful cold (in the teens Fahrenheit), and most ponds and lakes are not yet frozen. Usually, we are skating and even skiing by this time. Perhaps this is merely an outcome of the strong El Nino this year, or perhaps one of the ways global warming will manifest itself is through stronger El Ninos. If this weather pattern persists, it will be interesting to see what happens to the mourning cloaks next spring.

John Pastor

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