John Tolan
Professor of History, University of Nantes

John Tolan is a professor of history at the University of Nantes. His latest book is Faces of Muhammad: Western Perceptions of the Prophet of Islam from the Middle Ages to Today (2019).

Written by John Tolan

Thomas Jefferson’s copy of George Sale’s 1734 translation of the Quran is used in the swearing in ceremony of US Representative Keith Ellison at the United States Capitol in Washington, DC, on 4 January 2007. Photo by Getty

Thinkers and theories
Muhammad: an anticlerical hero of the European Enlightenment

John Tolan