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Ideas can change the world

Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview.
But we can’t do it without you.

Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview. Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking.

No ads, no paywall, no clickbait – just thought-provoking ideas from the world’s leading thinkers, free to all. But we can’t do it without you.

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How wolves change rivers

5 minutes

How the return of just 66 wolves rejuvenated Yellowstone’s entire ecosystem

Yellowstone’s reintroduction of wolves in 1995 is one of the best-known instances of a trophic cascade – a single change in a food chain that transforms an entire ecosystem. The return of the wolves rejuvenated wildlife in the park from top to bottom, even changing the area’s physical geography as native animals and plants reasserted themselves. Narrated by George Monbiot, How Wolves Change Rivers chronicles how Yellowstone’s extraordinary success in rewilding stems from a decrease in invasive and overpopulated species such as coyote and deer thanks to just 66 wolves returning after a 70-year absence from the park.

Support Aeon

Ideas can change the world

Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview.

But we can’t do it without you.

Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview. Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking.

No ads, no paywall, no clickbait – just thought-provoking ideas from the world’s leading thinkers, free to all. But we can’t do it without you.

Become a Friend for $5 a month or Make a one-off donation

Essay/Biology
The minds of plants

From the memories of flowers to the sociability of trees, the cognitive capacities of our vegetal cousins are all around us

Laura Ruggles

Essay/Earth Science
Life goes deeper

The Earth is not a solid mass of rock: its hot, dark, fractured subsurface is home to weird and wonderful life forms

Gaetan Borgonie & Maggie Lau